Misterios de la Tierra
¿Qué es la “Teoría Cuántica”?
Cuando hablamos de la teoría cuántica o de los cuantos nos estamos refiriendo a las Leyes provistas en las teorías cuánticas que dominan y son válidas en el estudio del mundo atómico.
Las teorías clásicas describen los fenómenos que tienen lugar en el macro y microscópico mundo; en cambio la teoría cuántica describe los fenómenos que ocurren en el mundo atómico.
Estos dos fórmulas teóricas o Leyes, (la Mecánica Clásica que habla del mundo macro y microscópico y la Mecánica Cuántica que habla del mundo atómico), definen con claridad las características tan separadas que gobiernan al estudio de fenómenos.
La Mecánica Clásica representaría el movimiento de los planetas alrededor del Sol, sus movimientos, desplazamientos, órbitas…etc. Estas leyes describen procesos continuos o continuidad entre dos estados.
La Mecánica Cuántica estudia los procesos electrónicos alrededor del núcleo atómico, es decir, la energía física o sutil que rodean y componen al átomo.
En el mundo macroscópico y microscópico, se pueden aportar ciertos valores generales de las energías que generan estos fenómenos físicos, pero en el mundo atómico estos valores de energía son aportados por mediciones siempre fijas.
Estas energías cuánticas tienen la cualidad de poder desplazarse de un lugar a otro o estar en dos lugares a la vez, estos son los -cuantos de energía-, y su medición energética sería sobre los grandes valores de esta energía, que se obtendrían de las sumas de los cuántos más pequeños ya que son indivisibles.
Leyes Mecánica Clásicas VS Leyes Mecánica Cuántica:
La diferencia primordial entre las leyes clásicas y las atómicas; es:
- Mecánica Clásica se refiere a los procesos continuos, o procesos donde hay una cierta continuidad entre dos estados.
- Mecánica Cuántica o teoría de los cuantos exponen los procesos en que tienen lugar los saltos de un estado a otro, o la forma discontinua de los átomos.
La física cuántica o mecánica ondulatoria, es una rama de la física que estudia el comportamiento de la materia atómica.
Al comportamiento de la materia atómica, se la define cuando se comienza a notar la imposibilidad de conocer con exactitud la posición de una partícula, o su energía, o conocer su posición y velocidad, sin afectar a la propia partícula.
Aplicaciones de la teoría cuántica:
Sus aplicaciones son imprescindibles y casi en exclusividad en los niveles atómicos, subatómicos y nucleares.
Actualmente, en el mundo de la electrónica se efectúa la búsqueda constante de nuevos materiales para los transistores, microprocesadores de ordenadores y componentes electrónicos, que tengan la característica principal de ser excelentes -semiconductores o superconductores- de altas energías.
¿Dónde se puede utilizar la física cuántica?
- En la instrumentación médica -láseres, tomógrafos, etc.
- En la criptografía. El ordenador cuántico.
- En la computación cuánticas.
- En la Cosmología teórica del Universo.
- En el procesamiento de datos. La teleportación de los estados cuánticos (qubits)
- En la Teletransportación humana.
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